APatented July 29, 1924.
FREDERICK W. PENDERGASTg'OF CAMBRIDGE, LIASS'ACHUSETTS; GRACE T. PENDERT GAST ADMINISTRATRIXVOF SAID FREDEBICKW. PENDERGAST, DECEASED.
.Animation ied. VMey ,118,
To all w hom/t may lconcern:
Beit known that, 1,]FREDERI0KW; PEN- DERGAST, a citizen of theiUnited Statesyresiding. at. Cambridge, inthecounty ofMidf vented new and useful. Improvements1-in2 Motors, yolf-[which the following is @speciication.
This yapplication isha; continuation, in part, of myfapplicationfor wind; motors, filed yNovember 19, 1920,-,Serial No.A 425,097.;
This invention Vrelaties chiefly. to vmeans,
. form. and .constructiom adaptedl to concen` .Y of Figure 2. y y y y Figure is. a section. on g line.; of.v
trate wind entering` the vstructure at'Y the Windward: side thereof, andlkto.y direct con+ centrated ,windl currentsr or blasts againstA theblades of a suitable wind wheel within4 the structure, and` to provide improved,
means for regulating; the admission of air to the wind wheel, andpreventingiback pressure of the escaping air.
The invention* is embodied in. the iin/- provements which I will noW. proceedto dey 4 or axis ofthe tower, and are grouped about scribe and claim.
Of the;- accompanying ,drawings forming a part of this -specicaton,.
Figure lis a side elevationbf a.win d motor. embodying the invention,-
Figure Qis a sectionon line 2,-2;of,Fig.
Figureeis anenlargement o'fa portionv Y i A ,.bladeseQlQ, extendinggbetween the headsl20 of Figure 3..
Figure 4 is a fragmentary. section,on line` 11T-4E, of `lifigure .1..
Figure is afiegmentaryseetiononglne; l
` f Gta-.the.tonerirnvaigdlyauchtheir;vertical,L
is anA yenlargement ofY 1a portion.
waa.; Serial; No@v .632,785.-
Figure 6 is Aaperspectiye view of the wind wheel, portions i thereof lbeing brokenf away.
'Figure .7 iis @enlargement .0i a prtien of vFigure `2, showinggmeans for' adjusting theishutters orlvaneshsh'own by Figure 2.
r Figure 8 zs..-ran.ze-nlargement 0f portion.
'The same referenceg characters indicat the sameparts in all the figures;
In carrying; lout .my invention I construct fromrl` reinforcedV .concrete an.. immovable supporting structureA oril tower, which. includesl a transverse kbase web 12, Aa transverse head web.- 13, and.longitudinal tangential websrl, extendingyvertically between the base and head webs.
The tower is so. located that it -is exposed towindinoving inany substantially horizontal direct-tom the/tower being preferyof Figablyfcircular in horizontal section, althoughA it maybe ofioctagonal, or either polygonal or approximately;` circular shape.V Theouter edges of the webs 15 are. atthe perimeter of the tower, and at opposite sides of theintake.. ends. of wind-,conducting and ,concentrating, passages: extending inwardly from.. the eXterioro thel tower. The inner edges. ofsaid webs are 'va-t'` opposite sidesof the discharge ends ofsaid passages, and are spaced equidistantifrom thegvertical center per'head 2Q', and a lower headgQl, both Vat-A tached ,totheshaft .(16, and aplurality of andf21f,. saidY blades ,being preferably radial tothe Vaxis of the ,wheelr Y :Thefwebs 1 5...converge from Vtheperimeter `sides are substantially tangential to the perimeter of the wind wheel, the arrangement being such that wind e-ntering at the windward side of the tower, as indicated by the arrows in Figures 2 and 2a, is concentrated and caused to impinge forcibly against some of the blades 22, and cause a unidirectional rotation of the wheel.
In practice the width of the webs 15, or the distance between `the outerV and inner vertical edges, yis preferably much greater than the diameter of the wind wheel, 4so that the o-uter ends of the air-concentrating passages are rela-tively wide, and are adapt- ,ed to receive relatively large volumes of wind. The width of the webs 15 may, for eXample, b`e ten times the diameter of the wind wheel, so` that provision may be made for collecting and concentrating upon the wind wheel large volumes of'wind. The direction of rotation of the wind wheel is indicated by the arrow w in Figure 2a.v
The tower may be of any desired height, the wind wheel extending from the lower to the upper end of the tower. To provide adequate strength when the tower is of considerable height', I provide a horizontal web -or webs 25, joined to and bracing the vertical webs 15 between the base and head portions of the tower. The horizontal web 25 is provided with a central opening 26 surrounding the wheel-receiving space.
The shaft 16 of the wind wheel may be adaptedto transmit power from thev wheel.
` As shown by dotted lines in Figure 1, the
shaft 16 is extended into a chamber 27 in `the base portion 12, and provided with a power-transmitting gear 28.-
One of the heads of the wind wheel, preferably the lower head 21, may constitute an element of power-transmitting means cooperating with a wheel 30, on a powertransmitting shaft 31. The head 21 and wheel30 may bev in frictional engagement with each other, as shown by Figure 6, or the head and wheel may have intermes'hing gear teeth positively rotating the wheel.
rI`he weight of the wind wheel may be supported by antifriction ,rolls 32, journaled in fixed bearings, and in rolling con-- tact with vthe under side of the head 21.
Governing shutters or vanes 34 may be located in the passages between the webs 15, to shut off or regulate the admission of wind to the windwheel. Said shutters are fixed to, and extend in oppositeradial directions from vertical shafts 35', j'ournaled in suitable bearinUs in the transverse webs, the shaftsextending into the chamber27, and
being provided vat their lower ends with pulleys Y36. The pulleys of all lthe shafts are connected by,V a Vcable 37,l wrapped* around each pulley, the arrangement being such that when one shaft 35 is turned in its bearings, the other shafts 35 are similarly turned through the cable.
One of the shafts 35 is provided with a worm gear 38, engaged by a worin 39 on a shaft 40, which is journaled in bearings 41 on the-base 12. The shaft 4() may be Y rotated by a crank 42, or otherwise, to rotate the gear 38.
To avoid confusion I have omitted the shutters and their actuating means from Figure 1.
It will be seen that the main portion of the tower between its base and head portions is annular and surrounds the wind wheel. It will also be seen that the immovabilitg7 of the tower enables the width of the walls of the wind-conducting and concentrating passages, or the distance between their outer and inner ends, to greatly exceed the diameter of the wind wheel, so that the intake ends of said passages may have any desired receiving capacity, and a much greater capacity than would be possible if the wind passages were formed in an annular structure mounted to rotate. The receiving 'capacity of said intake ends increases with the distance of said ends from the center of the tower. The immovability of the tower enablesV its diameter to be indefinitely increased without practical objections, whereas, if the tower, or any annular structure containing said passages, were mounted to rotate, its diameter or bulk and weight must be limited.
The wind entering at the windward side of the tower escapes through the outlets provided by the openings between the ver-y tical webs 15, at the lee side, and through supplemental outlets which I provide, to prevent back pressure on the wheel. Said supplemental outlets are formed by radial passages 45, which communicate with the openings 26 in the horizontal webs, and are preferably formed in said webs and eX- tend from said openings to the perimeter of the tower, as shown by Figures 3 and 3, and by full and dotted lines in Figure 1. In this instance, I show four passages 45, opening on the perimeter of the tower at uniform distances apart, although any other desired number of passages may be provided. At the outer ends Vof said passages I provide shutters, which may be closed at the Windward side of the tower, and opened at the lee side. A considerable portion of the air passes from the wheel throughV the openings 26, and the passages 45 at the lee side, the shutters of these passages being open, and the shutters of the other passages closed. l
Each shutter may be constructed as shown by Figures 8 and 9, in which 46 represents a frame set in the outer end. of a passage f :1 Shutter;- sections` or strips 47, having trunnions 48 journaled 1n bearingsin said frame, are adapted tobe turned simultaneouslyftoopenor close the passage-45, by a rodvv 49,; jointed to the: upper edges of the sections 47, the arrangement being such that when the rod 49 is moved endwise in one direction, t the shutter sections are brought together, and when the rod is moved in the opposite direction, the sections are spaced apart, so that wind can of the water, so that the portion of thel wheel in the upper portion is driven by wind.
The surface of the water may be, for example, at the level indicated by the line 0c-a? (Figure 1).
I claim: ,Y
1.In a wind motor, in combination, a
` fixed tower exposed on all sides to wind, and
having a central vertical wheel-receiving space, and a plurality of tapering wind-conducting and concentrating tangential passages extending from the exterior of the tower to the space, a wind wheel located in said receiving space and rotatable on a substantially vertical axis by wind entering the tower at the windward side thereof, the said passages being formed and arranged todirect concentrated wind currents against the wind-wheel blades in directions causing a unidirectional rotation of the wheel, vert-ical shafts in and extending below said passages and provided within the passages with governing shutters extending in opposite radial directions from the shafts, and means for simultaneously turning said shafts and shutters, said means including pulleys xed to the lower ends of said shafts, a cable engaged with and connecting said pulleys, a worm gear fixed to one of said shafts, and a manually rotatable worm meshing with said gear, means being provided to transmit power from the wind wheel.
2. A wind motor comprising a molded concrete tower, composed of substantially circular transverse webs and longitudinal webs integral with `and connecting the transverse webs, said webs being formed and arranged to provide a central vertically elongated wheel-receiving space; and a wind wheel rotatable in said space, the longitudinalwwebs `being ,tangentially arranged' and foriningriixed sides of tapering wind-(Loir. ducting and concentrating passages,extend` ingfrom the exterior kof the tower to said space.
3. A wind motor substantially as specilied by claim 2, the said tower being provided with supple-mental wind outlets extending. from the said wheel-receiving space to 'the` perimeter of the tower, and arranged to conduct wind from said space to the lee side of the tower.
4. A wind motor substantially as specified by. claim 2, the: said tower being provided with supplemental wind outlets, extending from the said wheel-receiving space to the perimeter of the tower, and arranged to conduct wind from said space to the lee side of the tower, the said outlets being provided with shutters whereby the outlets at the Windward side of the tower may be closed.
5. A wind motor substantially as specified by claim 2, comprising also longitudinally extending shafts journaled in bearings in said transverse webs, and provided within said passages with governing shutters that extend radially in opposite directions from the shaft, and means for turning said shafts and shutters.
6. A wind motor comprising a tower providing a central vertically elongated wheelreceiving chamber and a series of windconducting passages extending radially from the exterior yof the tower to said chamber, said passages tapering toward the axial chamber, a wind wheel mounted in the central chamber in the tower and comprising a shaft, vertically spaced heads secured to the shaft and blades connecting said heads, antifrict-io-n bearings on the tower supporting the wind-wheel, and a power shaft having thereon a driving wheel in engagement with t-he lower head of the wind wheel.
7. A wind motor comprising a tower providing a central vertically elongated wheelreceiving chamber and a series of wind-conducing passages extending radially from the exterior of thetower to said chamber, said passages tapering toward the axial chamber, a wind wheel mounted in the central chamber in the tower and comprising a shaft, vertically spaced heads secured to the shaft and blades connecting said heads, the shaftY of the wind wheel extending beyond one of theV heads and having a bevel pinion secured on its projecting end, and two power shafts supported by the tower and respectively provided with a pinion engaging the gear on the wheel shaft, and a friction wheel contacting with the face of one of the heads of the wind wheel.
8. A motor comprising a molded concrete tower composed of substantially circular transverse webs, and longitudinal webs integral with and connecting the transverse In testimony whereof I have afHXed my 10 Webs, said Webs being formed and arranged signature. to provide a central vertically elongated his Wheel-receiving space; and a Wheel rotatable i' in said space, the longitudinal Webs being FREDERICK W X PENDERGAST' mark tangentally arranged and forming Xed sides of tapering Huid-conducting passages Witnesses: extending from the exterior of the tower to GRACE T. PENDERGAST, said space. f EDITH F. B. KOCH.